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In some situations, especially on wordpress multi-user blogs, it may be useful to completely remove widgets from the interface. Each individual user can, by default, turn off any given widget using the Screen Options tab at the top, but if you have a lot of non-technical users it might be nicer for them to not see it at all.

To remove dashboard widget, use the remove_meta_box() function. See the example code below for the required parameters.

Here is an example function that removes the QuickPress widget.

// Create the function to use in the action hook
function example_remove_dashboard_widget() {
 	remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_quick_press', 'dashboard', 'side' );
} 
 
// Hook into the 'wp_dashboard_setup' action to register our function
add_action('wp_dashboard_setup', 'example_remove_dashboard_widget' );

The example below removes all Dashboard Widgets

function remove_dashboard_meta() {
        remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_incoming_links', 'dashboard', 'normal' );
        remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_plugins', 'dashboard', 'normal' );
        remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_primary', 'dashboard', 'side' );
        remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_secondary', 'dashboard', 'normal' );
        remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_quick_press', 'dashboard', 'side' );
        remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_recent_drafts', 'dashboard', 'side' );
        remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_recent_comments', 'dashboard', 'normal' );
        remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_right_now', 'dashboard', 'normal' );
        remove_meta_box( 'dashboard_activity', 'dashboard', 'normal');//since 3.8
}
add_action( 'admin_init', 'remove_dashboard_meta' );

You can copy and paste above code in your theme function.

Read more : http://codex.wordpress.org/Dashboard_Widgets_API